_:controlled parasitic frugality
- floating permaculture as a development of discursive systematic models

The Homo Ludens has broken out of his ecological dinnerjacked - his food supply is not longer limited by what he can grow, rather instead by what he can transform.
Fatal errors were made in the past when mankind developed its "permanent culture". Humans act as parasites, taking resources from the environment – in many cases in much larger amounts than nature and environment can stand. Moreover the different areas and fields of gaining the necessary ingredients for the basis of human life are not systematically or synergistically combined. Instead energy is transformed to food due mechanized agriculture.
First: frugality must be important. Second: better and more efficient systems for gaining the ingredients for the basis of human must be developed.

Floating Permaculture shows a polemic utopian statement of how to create a system which links systems together without exploitation. Due to the urbanisation and overpopulation, traditional farmland became expensive and rare. Floating permaculture as essential floating re-action to social expansion, having in mind, that actual cities are vulnerable systems, which are still based on fossil fuel. The epicontinental Northsea, with shallow water as ideal location for floating "green reactors".
The cybernetic process is embodied into a closed feedback loop, between energy & food production - blurred with the futuristic ideas of the metabolist movement and adapted to our actual society.

_:in the beginning

The logical consequence is to recuperate our farmland and to create floating islands, which combine energy and food production with sophisticated technology in a sustainable, autarkic manner.
As futuristic all this sounds, the use of floating permacultures is an ancient idea. The Aztecs had already used "Chinampas" - floating gardens to feed their cities, because normal farmland was barely available in that area. Also in Europe neolithic lake dwellers build their villages on stilts, not only as reaction for defence, but also as resource for food and the easier access to trading. Last but not least one of the most well known permacultures "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon". In all this examples humans modified the environments to their needs.
Today a good example for a modified environment is the dyke (or levee), an artificial slope or wall to regulate water levels (or in general: Architecture). Efferent from this modification the Polders, but here we can also see that there is a constant need of energy to keep the water pumps running. The food production is enabled through mechanized agriculture, where energy is transformed rather then synergetically bound up into one feedback-system.
Being is acting as allogenic ecosystem engineer par excellence, but through evolution, being became an engineered ecosystem parasite and therewith our environment unstable. The human being acts like a species that is competing for food & energy with one another and has therewith negative coefficients in the system - it creates a cybernetic niche.
Norman Borlaug tried to minimize this, by introducing genetics to agriculture, which resulted in the "Green Revolution". The revolution partly helped to avoid hunger of food, but the system is still based on exploitation of the soil. Being aware that we talk about the physical hunger, not even the hunger for energy, which we have nowadays.
Interesting enough, that the hunger for energy was the driving force to start to built offshore drilling platforms. As technology advanced over the last decades further distances from the shore were possible and our relation to the ocean changed. The ocean is not only the source for food, nowadays it also provides us with energy.
In addition the need for urban expansion shows up the necessity for an offshore strategy of food and energy harvesting, because already today one-third of the earth's land area suffers from some form of desertification and over eighty percent of our urban areas with a inhabitancy of a million or more are located next to the oceans. Further benefit in creating floating islands is the reduction of the storm water run-off, which is destroying the estuaries and the oceans.


Metabolism ["Stoffwechsel"] was founded in the 60ties and was used as term for cyclic floating systems (i.e. feedback systems). The theory was based on blurring the boundaries between classical and futuristic/utopian techniques as action to their statement that traditional laws and functions became obsolete.
In the same time architects like Constant and Yona Friedman designed their utopian social views for Europe.
Nevertheless most designs were concerned with housing problems and the society and just a few projects related to food production. Nearly none of the projects were related to energy, which is quite interesting when we look at the name of the movement and also the time.
The Architectural Association (AA) founded a new degree course called "tropical architecture" (1954) and the manifold Buckminster Fuller created a new type of architecture, which was based on the idea that architecture should respond on environmental forces. One of the best known utopian examples is probably his Manhattan Dome (1960) and of course his Global Energy Grid in 1938 - a grid where everybody worldwide would be connected to form a planetary energy internet to provide a permanent supply of abundant clean energy to end hunger, poverty and pollution. A brave utopian idea, which was in the end stopped by the politics of the cold war.
Even Constant's New Babylon would only be possible by action of the Homo Ludens, but inevitably it would become a high-tech shelter for only rich societies. In turn, it would leave deserted harvested fields in its wake, due to its need to feed this organism and the additionally working class who serve it. This has become already reality with the recycling procedure of modern "E-Waste", which is shipped to massive toxic dumps in Africa.
As we see, the Metabolist theory is more than ever important.
We can conclude that the problems about climate change and food justice were already recognized in the past, but the adaptation failed. Norbert Wiener once said: "We have modified our environment so far, that we now have to modify ourselves."
The modification of our self's should happen through serious rethinking how we harvest food and energy as utopian idea based on real data according to a direct problematic.


The diagram shows the cybernetic process of energy & food processing in a closed feedback loop.
Cybernetics deals with “control and communication in animal and machine” as Norbert Wiener describes it. It can be also described as the science of effective management and defensible metaphor. The science works by setting errors in the frame of evaluation and time, were we assume for this project, that the errors where made already in the past.
One fundamental contribution of cybernetics is its purposiveness behaviour in terms of control and information - the idea to eliminate negative feedback loops. This happens normally through observation of systems according to 1st or 2nd order cybernetics. The first order of cybernetics deals with the observation of the system, while the 2nd order observes the system, were the observer is part of the system. Floating Permaculture only focuses on the 2nd order of cybernetics, because human being is always part of the system.
Basically it is initial to have a basic understanding of cybernetics first, to derive to a logical working permacultural system. Like the first cyberneticians, who were eager to explore the similarities between ecological and technological systems, the pioneering spirit is brought forward into the Floating Permaculture.
Of course nature is much more complex and the flowchart is a basic graphical interpretation of how such a system could work. The system will be later explained in much more detail, it sets the basic strategy for the floating farms.


The idea of Yona Friedman's "Continent City" is adapted to a new 3 dimensional network, which develops from European main cities according to their inhabitancy. This network is a decentralized network, were it ensures that each capital has at least 3 knots to create a distributed network, a network type which is known for its stability - it has greater resistance to external changes then a centralized network.
This leads to a Rhizometric Megastructure which hovers over Europe creating a utopian place holder for the sustainable "Technobody".
This hovering scenario seems to be utopic, but the truth is, that Friedman's Continent City became already reality. Not only in 2 dimensional networks, like trains, highways or energy grids, also 3 dimensional. Visual data for this 3D network can be found if we track today's flight routes from Airport to Airport. The idea behind this network is, that cities have to be wired up to the Floating Permacultures to ensure the distribution of food and energy.
Tied to this structure is a floating sub-network connecting the "Continent City” with the Floating Permacultural system.
The North Sea, which is an ideal scenario for such systems, creates the main focus of attention, because it is an epicontinental sea. Epicontinental sea means it has shallow waters. Through analysing the bathymetric map, we see, that the North Sea is barely deeper then 70 Meters and has in addition consistent wind speeds.

_:systems and cycles

Each Permaculture seeks to combine sustainable energy and agriculture into a closed feedback loops. The input divides into natural and waste feeders. Natural feeders gather from input wind and sun resources. While on the other hand, waste feeders gather input from sewage and biomass resources generated from the mega structures. Focusing first on the waste feeders, which are lead through pipes back into the system. The detritus or sewage is pumped in a field of Vetiever Grass and then over a layer of Zebra Mussels before it is lead into a Fermenter. Interesting enough, that the Vetiver Grass was also used as first sediment filter in the Chinampas. The Vetiver Grass is reused later in the cooling engine, or desert cooler, for greenhouse.
The Zebra Mussels, normally known as parasites in lakes, form a closed system which acts as filter feeders admitting detritus and pre-cleaning the biomass in a natural way. Furthermore, the flesh and the shredded shell of the Zebra Mussels are used as food and calcium source for fish and chicken production. After the biomass is cleaned, it will get pre-purified in a Fermenter. Then running through a Dewatering machine to a Bioreactor, the waste ends up in a Settler, which is linked to the compost, before it is used as water in rice fields and greenhouses for vegetable production. The rice fields are unique in that they use combined animal groups (Catfish, Tilapia, Pangasius and Freshwater Drum) for increasing crop production in the paddies. The positive benefit is that the excrements of the fish operate as natural fertilisers for the rice. The enriched water with the fertilisers from the paddies is then lead into the greenhouses with the hydroponic systems.

_:the existing

Hydroponic systems were largely tested over years by illegal cannabis production and in larger areas such as the vertical farm at the Paignton Zoo (2009). Combined Animal Groups can be seen in use at the Science Barge, in New York, where they use catfish excrement as natural fertiliser in small hydroponic systems. The cooling of the greenhouse for the hydroponics is done by panels of cardboard and Vetiver Grass, in which water irrigation cools down the air. Furthermore, once the cardboard or the grass is rotten, it will be disposed as natural waste into a compost area. In winter, the greenhouses are heated by the use of passive solar energy. The compost area transforms biomass to soil by the use bacteria and worms. Later down the line, the worms are used as food for fish. This use of compost is connected to the output of compostable biomass of the mega structures. The generated soil from the compost is used in the aforementioned rice and corn fields. Another compound feed and nitrogen source for the system is generate from the corn as starch, which can be stored and used on demand linking back to the animal and crop production.


If we focus now on the first system, the harvesting of natural energy resources like wind and sun, we can base a huge amount on proven systems, which unfortunately, are not optimised for extraction, due to lack of technology. One big task what we have today is how we can store the generated energy.
Solution A is the use of electrolysis combined with a hydrogen-fuel cell. The electrolysis transforms the generated electricity into hydrogen, which can be later transformed by the fuel-cell back into electricity. If not in a fuel cell the hydrogen can also stored as granulate via a "metal hydride storage".
Solution B is to store the energy in a Norwegian hydro-electric power plant, were we can then use the energy on demand. Such system is already planed, but at the moment stopped due to politics. Auxiliary electricity is generated through wind, solar, wave turbines and biogas from the Fermenter. The generated electricity feeds back into the Floating Permaculture as well as the Megastructures. A second reactor is also hooked up to the circular flow via an Algae Bioreactor, which is optimized by LED's that are driven by the Fuel cell to increase the production up to 24H. A small scale version of this reactor was created by a company called OriginOil. The output of such a reactor is not only electricity, it also produces an algae cake. This algae press cake from the bioreactor is high in protein and can be feedback into animal feed or directly into the Megastructures.

A newer system, which should be mentioned is called OTEC (Ocean thermal energy exchange), a system which gains electricity by heat exchange of cold water from the deep sea with warmer shallow water. In addition the OTEC system does not only create energy, it also creates desalinated water and this 24hours a day all year around. Because of the depth of the North Sea [~90m], the best location for this system is near the equatorial areas, like in Puerto Rico, where the ocean has a depth of 3000 meters.

_:future dreams

In one way, Lavoisier was right: "Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is transformed." Therewith we should aim today for transformations, which are bound up to a sustainable feedback loops.
We can not prevent the climate changes anymore, but we are able to minimize the effect by acting now through modifying our cerebration and through combination of serious energy efficiency and wide variety of new technologies if we would like to create hope of a way out of the crisis.
Floating Permaculture as sophisticated part of a new Metabolism; a positive organism which will adapt to bodies and culture creates the battery which will provide the modern autonomous "Technobody" with energy. The Human has to aim for autarky as a solution for our current over-exploitation of resources.